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book chapter

Structural change, productivity growth, and trade policy in Brazil

Throughout the course of only a few decades in the postwar period, the Brazilian economy experienced an intense and fast process of industrialization, which went hand in hand with a major increase in labor productivity and periods of annual growth…

book chapter

Stuck in the middle? Structural change and productivity growth in Botswana

In 1966 when Botswana gained independence, it was one of the poorest countries in the world. But by 1986, Botswana had achieved middle-income status, and in 2005, the World Bank classified it as an upper-middle-income country. The only other country…

book chapter

Moving out of agriculture: Structural change in Viet Nam

During the past 20 years, Viet Nam underwent an economic transformation, featuring high rates of economic growth—real GDP increased at an average annual growth rate of 7 percent from 1986 to 2008 and GDP per capita in PPP terms tripled—and a sharp…